What is the Oil Sump

The Oil Sump is the lower half of the crankcase, also known as the lower crankcase. The function is to close the crankcase as the outer shell of the oil storage tank, to prevent impurities from entering, and to collect and store the lubricating oil flowing back from the friction surfaces of the diesel engine, to dissipate part of the heat, and to prevent the lubricating oil from oxidizing.

The oil sump (Oil Sump) is located in the lower part of the engine: it can be removed and assembled, and the crankcase is sealed as the outer shell of the oil storage tank. The Oil Sump  is mostly stamped from a thin steel plate, and the more complex shape is generally casted by cast iron or aluminum alloy. The oil stabilizing baffle is installed inside to avoid the oil surface shock and splash caused by the bumping of the diesel engine, which is conducive to the precipitation of lubricating oil impurities. A dipstick is installed on the side to check the amount of oil. In addition, the lowest part of the bottom of the Oil Sump  is also equipped with an oil drain plug.

Classification of Oil Sump

1. Wet

Most of the cars seen on the market are wet oil sumps. The reason for the name of the wet oil sump is that the crankshaft of the engine and the big head of the connecting rod will be immersed in the oil of the oil sump once every revolution of the crankshaft. It plays a lubricating role. At the same time, due to the high-speed operation of the crankshaft, every time the crank is immersed in the oil sump at high speed, it will arouse a certain amount of oil and oil mist. In this way, there is a certain requirement for the height of the liquid level of the lubricating oil in the Oil Sump . If it is too low, the crankshaft crank and the large end of the connecting rod cannot be immersed in the lubricating oil, resulting in a lack of lubrication and smooth crankshaft, connecting rod and bearing pad If the lubricating oil level is too high, it will cause the entire bearing to immerse, which will increase the rotational resistance of the crankshaft and eventually cause the engine performance to decrease. At the same time, the lubricating oil will easily enter the cylinder combustion chamber, causing the engine to burn engine oil and spark plug carbon deposits.

This lubrication method has a simple structure and does not require an additional oil tank, but the inclination of the vehicle’s work must not be too large, otherwise it will cause a fire and a burning cylinder accident due to oil interruption and oil leakage.

2. Dry

Dry sump is used in many racing engines. It does not store oil in the oil sump, more precisely it does not. The friction surfaces of these movements in the crankcase are lubricated by pressing out the oil through the measuring holes. Since the dry oil sump engine cancels the function of storing oil in the oil sump, the height of the crude oil sump is greatly reduced, and the height of the engine is also reduced. The benefit of lowering the center of gravity is that it is beneficial for control. The main advantage is to avoid all the adverse phenomena caused by the intense driving of the wet Oil Sump .

However, because the pressure of the lubricating oil all comes from the oil pump. The power of the oil pump is connected through the gears through the rotation of the crankshaft. Although in the wet Oil Sump  engine, an oil pump is also needed to provide pressure lubrication to the camshaft. But this pressure is very small, and the oil pump requires little power. However, in dry sump engines, the pressure lubrication needs to be much stronger. And the size of the oil pump is much larger than that of the wet Oil Sump  engine. Therefore, the oil pump needs more power at this time. This is like a supercharged engine, the oil pump needs to consume part of the engine’s power. Especially at high speeds, when the engine speed increases, the motion intensity of the friction parts increases, and more lubricating oil is required. Therefore, the oil pump needs to provide more pressure, and the consumption of crankshaft power is intensified.

Obviously, such a design is not suitable for ordinary civilian car engines, because it needs to lose part of the engine power, which will not only affect the power output, but also not conducive to improving economy. Therefore, the dry sump will only be equipped on large displacement or high power engines, such as those sports cars that are born for intense driving. For example, Lamborghini uses a dry sump design. For it, it is more important to improve the lubrication effect at the limit and obtain a lower center of gravity. The loss of power can be compensated by other aspects such as increased displacement. As for the economy Sex, this type of car does not need to be considered at all.

What are the raw materials for cosmetics

Cosmetics are compound mixtures made from a variety of raw materials after reasonable blending and processing. There are many kinds of raw materials for cosmetics and their performances are different. According to the raw material properties and uses of cosmetics, it can be roughly divided into two categories: base materials and auxiliary materials.

The former is a kind of main raw material of cosmetics, which occupies a large proportion in cosmetic formulations, and is a substance that plays a major role in cosmetics. The latter is for shaping, stabilizing or imparting color, fragrance and other characteristics of cosmetics. These substances are not used in cosmetic formulations, but they are extremely important. Cosmetics are chemical mixtures of natural, synthetic or extracted substances with different functions as raw materials, which are processed through production processes such as heating, stirring and emulsification.

Introduction of cosmetic raw materials

Cosmetics are compound mixtures made from a variety of raw materials after reasonable blending and processing. There are many kinds of raw materials for cosmetics and their performances are different. According to the raw material properties and uses of cosmetics, it can be roughly divided into two categories: base materials and auxiliary materials. The former is a kind of main raw material of cosmetics, which occupies a large proportion in cosmetic formulations, and is a substance that plays a major role in cosmetics. The latter is for shaping, stabilizing or imparting color, fragrance and other characteristics of cosmetics. These substances are not used in cosmetic formulations, but they are extremely important. Cosmetics are chemical mixtures of natural, synthetic or extracted substances with different functions as raw materials, which are processed through production processes such as heating, stirring and emulsification.

Development trend of cosmetic raw materials

Consumers always want their skin to stay moisturized, nourished, tender, smooth, comfortable, and easy to set, all of which rely on conditioning products. Conditioning is still an important development trend in hair care. With the development of technology, better conditioning products will emerge in the market.

Classification of cosmetic raw materials

Oily raw materials

Oily raw materials include natural oily raw materials and synthetic oily raw materials. They mainly refer to oils, waxes, hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols and esters. They are the main raw materials for cosmetics. Fat is a general term for oil and fat. Fat includes vegetable fat and animal fat. The main components of oils and fats are fatty acid glycerides composed of fatty acids and glycerin.

Synthetic materials

Refers to the modified fats and waxes that are processed and synthesized from various fats or raw materials. Not only is the composition similar to raw fats and oils, but also maintains its advantages, but in terms of purity, physical shape, chemical stability, microbial stability, and skin irritation and Skin absorption and other aspects have been significantly improved and improved, so it has been widely used in various cosmetics. Commonly used raw materials for synthetic oils and fats include squalane, lanolin derivatives, polysiloxanes, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid fats, etc.

Floury raw materials

Powdery raw materials are mainly used for powder cosmetics, talcum powder, fragrance powder, compact powder, lipstick, rouge and eye shadow. In cosmetics, it mainly covers, smoothes, adheres, absorbs, and spreads; the raw materials commonly used in cosmetics include inorganic powdery materials, organic powdery materials, and other powdery materials.

Colloidal raw materials

The colloidal raw material is a water-soluble polymer compound, which can expand into a colloid in water. When used in cosmetics, it can produce a variety of functions, which can make the solid powdery raw material stick and form, as a glue, for emulsion or suspension. Plays the role of milky slip, as an emulsifier, in addition to thickening or gelling effect.

Plant material

With the changes in cosmetics consumer market demand, cosmetic raw materials require consumers to not only cleanse and moisturize skin care products, but also hope to remove wrinkles and enhance skin elasticity. Cosmetics manufacturers have begun to use a lot of natural active ingredients . Due to anti-aging, the demand for natural ingredients in skin care products has increased, and various vitamins, active substances, and plant essences will dominate the world cosmetic raw material market in the future.

Auxiliary materials

Auxiliary raw materials refer to raw materials that stabilize and modify the content itself (aromatic, smooth, color, etc.), such as preservatives, antioxidants, chelating agents, colorants, flavors, etc.

Causes and hazards of chemical production and static electricity

Static electricity safety is an important part of safety management in the chemical production process. The generation and accumulation of static electricity may cause major safety accidents, seriously affect safe production, and cause significant economic losses. The hidden nature of static electricity causes personnel to pay less attention to the management of static electricity safety. Therefore, be familiar with the causes of static electricity, fully understand the preventive measures of static electricity, implement preventive measures in the chemical production process, improve personnel’s awareness of static electricity safety and safety management level in the production process, so that everyone pays attention to static electricity safety to ensure Production is safe and stable.

telescopic image
Telescopic image

Chemical companies often use, transport and store flammable and explosive gases, liquids and solids in the production process. Due to factors such as process formulation deviations, improper operation methods or paralysis of personnel thinking, static electricity will be generated. May cause a safety accident. Combustion and explosion accidents caused by static electricity in the chemical production process are not uncommon, but the quality of products is not up to standard, equipment and facilities are damaged, and serious economic losses, casualties and other adverse effects will be serious. Therefore, understand the causes of static electricity, predict the possible hazards, and take safe and reliable preventive measures to achieve “prevention first, prevent combination”, in order to ensure the safe and orderly production, to achieve the intrinsic safety of the production process.

1 .Causes of static electricity

Static electricity is caused by the transfer of electrons in the outer layer of atoms caused by various external forces to form positive and negative charges, so static electricity is divided into positive and negative static electricity. The main causes of static electricity are friction electrification, contact electrification and induction electrification. The friction between the objects will cause the transfer of charge, which is the electrification of the friction; the objects of two different materials will separate after contact with each other, and the objects will be charged when they are close to the charged objects; when the objects are close to the charged objects, the objects will be charged, which is called induction charging. Static electricity is not a static charge. It is a charge that accumulates on the surface or inside of an object because the generated charge cannot be released in time. When objects of different electrostatic potential are close to or in contact with each other, charge transfer will occur, and the discharge of static electricity will produce electrostatic discharge. If ignition conditions are met, combustible materials will be ignited, causing accidents and casualties.

2. The danger of static electricity

(1) Cause production safety accidents

Most media used in chemical production are flammable and explosive. During the process of material friction stirring, material flow, shaking during media transportation, etc., static electricity will accumulate. The voltage of static electricity can reach 10,000 volts, even 100,000 volts. If discharge occurs, combustibles, flammables, or even difficult Burning materials will also be ignited. The instantaneous discharge of static electricity can also cause dust explosions. The danger of dust explosions is often more shocking. The first explosion of dust will raise more dust, and the second explosion of dust is often more terrible. The human body generates static electricity due to the friction between clothing or between the human body and the clothing during the activity. The strong mobility of the personnel makes the monitoring of the static electricity carried by the human body particularly difficult. Once electrostatic discharge of the human body occurs, it may cause combustibles and combustibles. When a fire or explosion occurs, causing a safety accident or casualties.

(2) Cause production safety failure

Static electricity can cause great harm to safety operations, quality, equipment and production environment. Especially in the process of powder material transportation, static electricity will deposit materials with smaller particle size, adhere to the pipe wall, block the pipeline, the material cannot be transported, and even the pressure of the pipeline and the system rises, which may cause serious damage to the equipment . The discharge of static electricity causes the electronic components of the device to burn out or break down in the computer system or control system, which may cause errors in signal transmission or reception, thereby causing production failures and safety accidents. Static electricity will also accelerate the aging speed of electronic components and shorten their life.

(3) Cause personal injury

Electrostatic shock is not an electric shock through which the electric current continuously passes through the human body, but refers to the shock injury caused by the static discharge instantaneously. Electrostatic shock can cause damage to the human center, nerves and other parts. Electrostatic shock is not caused by the human body directly touching the live part of the charged equipment, nor caused by the failure of the electrical equipment, but because of the contact and separation of the clothes and solid materials during the activities of the person, as well as the static induction and other conditions that make the human body Static electricity is formed, resulting in injury from electrostatic discharge. The damage of static electricity to personnel is uncertain, and special attention should be paid to the static electricity of personnel.

3. Prevention of static electricity

Static electricity has the characteristics of high voltage, low power, low power, small current and short action time, but electrostatic discharge is instantaneous discharge, and often instantaneous power is large. In the chemical production process, safety is the basic condition for obtaining economic benefits. Without safety guarantee, there is no way to talk about production benefits. Often, the economic losses caused by an accident caused by parking will be very large. The generation of static electricity is inevitable. How to reduce the generation of static electricity and release the accumulated static electricity safely in time to eliminate the harm caused by static electricity to ensure that production runs under the premise of intrinsic safety. There are many ways to eliminate static electricity, but the simple and effective measures in the production process mainly include process design control method, static grounding method, static neutralization method and anti-static measures for the human body.

4.Process design control method

The process design control method is a simple and effective solution to fundamentally solve static electricity. From the perspective of process design, the elimination of static electricity is to eliminate static electricity from intrinsic safety, mainly in process design, equipment material selection, equipment structure type, and addition of conductive substances Such measures as reduce the generation of static electricity or discharge the generated static electricity in a timely and safe manner. The main measures are: (1) Choose a reasonable material feeding sequence and method: choose the order of different materials feeding order, the reasonable arrangement of the material conveying method or feeding method; (2) Equipment material: choose the material that is conducive to electrostatic discharge according to the nature of the material Conductive materials, avoid the use of insulating materials; (3) The static discharge measures of the equipment are considered in the design process of the moving equipment, and the safe and reliable measures must be taken to guide the static electricity away from the moving equipment during the design process; (4) The material transportation speed and The material and size of the pipe are reasonably matched: the larger the pipe diameter, the smaller the flow rate, and the smaller the pipe diameter, the faster the flow rate; (5) the addition of a charge inhibitor or a high-conductivity substance to promote the dissipation of charge and reduce the risk of static electricity; (6) Electrostatic grounding alarms are installed at the ends of other mobile equipment such as raw material barrels, turnover barrels, tank trucks, etc., and the static electricity accumulated by the mobile equipment can be exported in time.

related systems. The importance of static electricity in chemical production should be paid attention to. It is eliminated by safe and reliable measures, so as to ensure the safe production of enterprises, avoid accidents, and achieve intrinsic safety in the production process.

Eye Makeup Tricks You should know

Girls should learn these trendy eye makeup techniques. Because these eye makeup techniques are easy, quick and effective for making your eyes alluring.

makeup brushes
Makeup brushes

1.Crease and contour tips

The crease and contour method of eye makeup utilizes the effects of the light and the dark. The major portions of the eyelids should have light eyeshadow. Only a little dark color should be seen on the outermost corners of your eyes.

2.The Dotted bottom eyeliner

For a more subtle and natural look, the dotted bottom eye liner technique is used. This technique also makes your eyes appear bigger. This method involves the breaking up of your bottom eye-liner line.

Considering the shape and size of your eyes, you need to draw four to seven dots with a soft eye pencil, below your lower eyelash line. Avoid drawing dots very close to the inner corners of your eyes. Draw the dots lightly with your eye pencil.

Wear thick eyeliner and mascara to complement this bottom eyeliner look.

Tips For Beginners eyeshadow application

Applying eyeshadow for beginners can be a bit difficult. You may not be sure what colors to buy or anything else. So here are some tips for the hopeful novice:

1. Get an eyeshadow brush. This may seem a bit of a stretch for a beginner, but the fact is beginners are known for having a lot of product all in one area. If you’re trying something bold, like black or bright eyeshadow, too much color at once will make you look like Bozo the Clown. However, with a brush, you are able to slowly layer your eyeshadow until you get it the shade you want it instead of having way too much color. You don’t have to get an expensive one-a two dollar one from Wall-Mart will serve as an applicator, blender, etc. Everything that you need.

2. Go to the Dollar Store. This may seem a bit unbelievable, but you are a beginner. Starting with cheaper makeup allows you to have as many shades as you want to try without spending a whole bunch on one eyeshadow palette with three colors. On the other hand, this is a good practice for more experienced appliers as well. You’re able to see what looks good on you and make a mental note of it (making a swatch on a piece of paper for later reference and then lightly spraying it with hairspray is another good practice.)

3. Be willing to experiment. If you find a bright green eyeshadow that you’re dying to try, then look at it. Is the price right? Do you really like the color? If so, go for it. If it’s more expensive, see if you can find a similar color for a lot cheaper. If it rings true, then go for it!

4. Watch makeup tutorials. Don’t just watch the regular, everyday makeup. Look at the bold tutorials as well. They’ll give you an idea of what colors work well together if you decide to take it up a notch one day.

Which countries do wires and cables be exported?

Although the wire and cable industry is only a supporting industry, it accounts for 1 / 4 of the output value of China’s electrical industry. It has many kinds of products and a wide range of applications, involving power, construction, communication, manufacturing and other industries, which are closely related to all sectors of the national economy. Wires and cables are also called “arteries” and “nerves” of the national economy. They are indispensable basic equipment for the transmission of electric energy, the transmission of information, the manufacture of various motors, instruments and meters, and the realization of electromagnetic energy conversion. They are also necessary basic products in the future electrification and information society.

Steel pipes
Steel pipes

About one belt, one road for wires and cables

The summit of one belt, one road, has just come to a close and has achieved over 270 achievements. These achievements will inject new vitality into our economy in the future. Copper prices, which rebounded strongly for more than a year, began to decline again. The trend of copper price can explain the prosperity of wire and cable industry to a large extent. According to the financial statements of several large cable listed companies in the first quarter of 2017, the net profit of Far East Cable decreased by 86%, that of Zhongchao cable decreased by 12%, that of solar cable decreased by 48%, and that of long-distance cable decreased by 35%. The weaker demand, together with the increasingly fierce competition, led to the declining net profit of major cable manufacturers. If we do not expand new markets, the whole industry will face greater competitive pressure.

One belt, one road, has 65 countries, covering almost all Asia and central and Eastern Europe. Among them, there are 18 countries in West Asia, 8 in South Asia, 5 in Central Asia, 10 in ASEAN, 7 in cis and 16 in central and Eastern Europe. Most of the countries are developing countries, with vast territory. The demand for infrastructure such as railway, highway, power grid and so on is huge, which will be a great opportunity for the whole cable industry. For these 65 countries, each country has different requirements for cables, and it is almost impossible for a product to meet the requirements of these countries. But there is a kind of certification that can meet the requirements of these countries for cables to the maximum extent. This certification is CB certification, which is the standard dominated by IEC.

Wire and cable is second largest industry in China

The wire and cable industry is the second largest industry in China after the automobile industry, with the product variety satisfaction rate and domestic market share over 90%. In the world, the total output value of China’s wires and cables has exceeded that of the United States, becoming the world’s largest producer of wires and cables. With the rapid development of China’s wire and cable industry, the number of new enterprises continues to rise, and the overall technical level of the industry has been greatly improved. Let us take a look at the specific countries where China’s wires and cables are exported.

Top 10 countries for wire and cable

In 2019, 205 countries / regions in the world purchased cables from China, with a total purchase amount of 13.9 billion yuan, of which Australia is the largest market, accounting for 12.02%, 1.67 billion yuan, Singapore 6.8% and Indonesia 6.8%.

5 tips for operating heavy machinery

Heavy machinery and construction equipment are built to be tough and longstanding to endure unthinkable work intensity. On construction sites they are usually carrying or raising enormous amounts of weight, cargo and parts. Such environment are vulnerable to hazard because of ignorance of employees and machine instructors. A hazard can be very lethal and may prove inevitable to both the users and the bystanders around it.

Gantry crane travels inside a factory.
Gantry crane

In factories, employees are usually endangered by running machines and loads. On building and excavating sites transporting machines like cranes, wheel loaders, bulldozers are commonly deployed. Many hazards are also occurred due to overworking the drivers. Here are some hazard advice for drivers of heavy machinery and bystanders standing or working close by:

Never forget to put on safety helmets and warning color clothing during operational hours. Make sure that all the sockets, cables are working perfectly prior to turning on any equipment particularly if you are working with high voltage machines. For construction equipment and heavy machinery, the equipment should regularly be inspect for broken parts.

Always ensure that the equipment which are being operated installed alarms and hazard shut down systems at the backup. A few equipment like bulldozers, cranes, and trucks are enormous and the driver has a panoramic view or his environment. But during the shift so much is going on on the work site that he might not be able to focus his attention on all subjects and an ignorant colleague working nearby can be in danger. This is why these equipment should always have backing up flashes to alarm those behind that danger is in vicinity.

Avoid operating heavy machinery while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Some prescription can also result in delusions. Working overnight and long hours without breaks can also result in drivers and bystanders to be less watchful.

Make double sure that cooperation between workers is important. Factory workers should be alarmed if enormous equipment is operating and running around. Drivers should also be watchful and should warn the bystanders around them if they are transporting the machine to different place.

A lot of heavy machines have safety instruction for operation engraved in the cabin or in front of the driver’s seat. They should thoroughly read and comprehend prior to task.

Cranes carry huge amounts of cargo and often transport the cargo from one location to another. If these cargo are in air, an alarm should always sound to warn the bystanders in the work site or loading zone.

Quite a few job site and road construction projects are in various terrain like rocky regions and permafrost terrain. These places are harmful for machines and vehicles. Warning signs about the terrain should always be displayed for machine drivers to see in order to prevent hazards and loss of precious lives and property. It is always useful to inform the drivers before beginning the job so that they can be watchful of the area.

Make sure to have access to infirmary and first aid kits in the site in case of accident. These advice can prevent lethal accidents and sometimes save people’s lives and preserve costly equipment. For more information on safety tips of heavy machinery please come back later. With these information available you can save time and money while working on the job.